Lead Crystal batteries

Introduction

Growing demand for batteries on a global scale

Due to the rapid development of the industry, the application of batteries in transportation, communication, power, military, aviation, marine, commercial facilities as well as in the daily needs of users has become more extensive.

The performance of conventional lead based batteries is not optimal

Because of its inherent structural characteristics, traditional lead-acid batteries suffer from plate sulphation, active material loss, high water loss rate, serious acid pollution, poor low temperature performance, short life cycle, poor transport safety and other flaws. In order to overcome the structural weaknesses in lead-acid batteries, gel electrolyte has been used as replacement in gel batteries. Although it reduces acid mist, reduces water loss rate and self-discharge rate, and improves the discharge performance, it raises new problems such as poor penetration of the gel material, weak compatibility with the AGM separator and a slow reaction to the electrodes.

By its unique technology Lead Crystal® batteries have a high performance

To overcome the fundamental flaws of the lead-acid and gel batteries, we have successfully developed five exclusive patented technological innovations in Lead Crystal® batteries. Lead Crystal® batteries are ideal products to replace lead acid and gel batteries

In line with the industrial development trend of the 21st century, Lead Crystal® batteries pioneered the new concept of environmentally friendlier electrolyte and manufacturing, and marked the iconic innovation of battery technology. The excellent properties of Lead Crystal® batteries is well received in many provinces and cities in China, and has successfully entered markets in Southeast Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Europe and other international markets. They are widely used in solar energy, wind energy storage systems, telecommunications, UPS power supply, power stations, railway passenger cars, electric vehicles, electric bikes, beacon signal indicators and other fields. This new type of environmentally friendly product is rapidly blending into the consumer lifestyles of many industries and is widely accepted by institutions and individuals.

The patented technology found in lead crystal batteries uses a special advanced technology formula, a new type of composite SiO2 electrolyte developed to completely replace traditional sulphuric acid solution. This in turn improves the product’s application and safety performance. When the composite electrolyte reacts with the plates during the charging process, crystalline electrolyte salts are formed, and the electrolyte is absorbed into the electrolytic salt. The electrolyte is distributed evenly, in a non-hierarchical manner, and there is no gradient concentration in the upper and/or lower electrode. The electrical properties of the battery are consistent and achieve reliable performance. It effectively overcomes the disadvantages of plate sulphation, active material loss and water loss rate, has good low temperature and overcharge performance, and greatly improves product life.

Applications 

Lead Crystal® batteries can be used in a wide range of applications where lead acid, Lead Gel batteries or AGM Batteries are used today, including, but not limited to:
• Telecommunications, Communications Exchange and Transmission Systems;
• UPS Uninterruptible Power Supply, PABX and Microwave Relay Station;
• Radio and Broadcasting Stations;
• Power Plants and Transmission Systems;
• Emergency Lighting Systems;
• Railway Signal, Beacon Signalling System;
• Solar Energy, Wind Energy Storage Systems;
• Hotels, Auditoriums and other Applications.

Advantages summarised

Compared to mainstream rechargeable industrial batteries like lead acid, lead gel and AGM batteries, Lead Crystal® batteries perform as follows:
• Lead Crystal® batteries can be charged faster
• Lead Crystal® batteries can be discharged deeper (even to 0 Volt!)
• Lead Crystal® batteries can be charged below 0 degrees Celsius
• Lead Crystal® batteries can be cycled more often (1500 @ 80% DOD)
• Lead Crystal® batteries have very low gassing (IEC 60896-21/11)
• Lead Crystal® batteries can be used in a partial state of charge
• Lead Crystal® batteries can be stored for 2 years without top-up charging
• Lead Crystal® batteries require no special ventilation or cooling
• Lead Crystal® batteries hold no cadmium, no antimony and less than 5 percent sulphuric acid
• Lead Crystal® batteries have an operating temperature from -40 to +65 Celsius

Technical specifications

Lead Crystal® batteries are a range of new products that were successfully developed based on existing batteries. It has better performance characteristics compared to a conventional batteries and is the result of new technical breakthroughs. The fundamental issues of serious lead acid battery acid pollution, electrode sulphation, short life cycle, poor low temperature performance and other flaws are resolved, setting a high standard of "efficiency, safety, and long-life".

Structure characteristics

Special Electrolyte Composition

A unique complex technology is used to synergize a range of inorganic salts and organic substances, thereby optimizing the reaction between the electrolyte and the active electrode material, effectively preventing the active substance to become salt and fall off, and extending its service life. The electrolyte within the battery crystallizes, leaving no free electrolyte, no leakage, making the battery safe and reliable. The battery may be installed using in a variety of orientations, making it easy to use. This opens a wide range of installation applications, since the risk of electrolyte leakage is eliminated. This reaction also improves the products safety making it less harmful to installers and users alike.

Battery Slot Cover

The battery slot cover is made from strong opaque ABS plastic with a standard V2 flammability rating. It is also available in a V0 and v1 flammability rating on order.

Grid

The grid is made with high quality corrosion-resistant non-antimony alloy, to ensure the excellent performance life of the positive grid, improve the over potential of the anode, and inhibit hydrogen corrosion.

Partition

The partition is made of an ultra-fine fibre separator of high porosity, using cathode absorption technology to create gas recombination. The separator has good acid resistance and stability, which provides sufficient porosity and maintains the smooth passage of the gas while absorbing and storing sufficient volumes of electrolyte (to ensure the battery high performance). The oxygen can rapidly distribute negative electrons to perform cathode absorption and oxygen combination cycle.

Safety Valve

A safety exhaust valve is used that has high sensitivity, and can open or close according to the internal pressure change of the battery. Safety valves are made of corrosion-resistant, anti-aging fluorine rubber, which can retain the air-tightness and liquid-tightness of batteries with long-term use and constant open and close valve pressure. The internal pressure of the batteries is maintained at optimal safety range.

Sealing Performance

Battery compartment and cover are seals made of rubber rings and terminals that are dual-sealed. A sealing material that has small shrinkage is used to ensure that the terminal seals well.

Positive and Negative Plates

The positive and negative plates are the core electrochemical reaction region and the most important components of the battery. The grid is coated with lead paste and formed after curing, drying, and other processes. The following composition are the active material of the positive and negative plates:
• Positive electrode plate: main component - Lead Dioxide (PbO2);
• Negative electrode plate: main components - Spongy Lead (Pb).

Special Manufacturing Process

Using pressure filling technology in combination with patented gravity filling containers to fill the batteries with electrolyte and the patented terminal connecting equipment, these improvements ensure an even distribution of electrolyte in each cell further enhancing the performance of the batteries and increasing the efficiency.

Working principle

Working principle

When discharging, the positive and negative active material reacts with the acidic element of the electrolyte and becomes lead sulphate and water, causing the acid density to decrease. When charging, the acid that concentrated in the positive discharge material (during discharge cycles) is released back into the electrolyte. At this time the lead sulphate in the positive and negative plate transforms in to lead dioxide and a spongy type of lead which causes the acid density in the electrolyte to increase.

With conventional lead based batteries, after charging or prior to charge completion, all the charging current is used for electrolyses of the moisture in the electrolyte. The positive plates release oxygen and the negative plate hydrogen gas. If the gas recombination efficiency of the battery is low, a large percentage of the gas will escape leaving less moisture in the battery after every charge. This action causes the electrolyte content to decrease due to water loss, raising the acidity in the battery and shortening the life of the battery. This is known as late charge fluid loss phenomenon.

With Lead Crystal® batteries, besides the regular chemical reaction, the composite electrolyte has various additives that participate in the electrochemical reaction. The additives inhabit the oxygen and hydrogen gas during the charging cycle increasing the batteries recombination rate. This in turn reduces the water loss during and after charging. When discharging, the lead sulphate can be totally transformed back into active material, prolonging the battery’s use life.

Lead Crystal® batteries use a new advanced type of AGM material as a separator. The AGM has much higher electrical conductivity, heat resistant and acid resistant abilities than standard AGM on the market. The crystallized electrolyte in combination with the AGM can effectively protect the plates and prevent the active material from falling off during use. The electrolyte is completely absorbed and stored in the AGM. Since the AGM is completely saturated with electrolyte then crystallized, no free liquid electrolyte will be present in the battery. The battery can now be used in various directional positions without leaking.

Charge characteristics

Cycle charge characteristics

Charger settings for 12 volt CNFJ, HCNFJ and CNFT Lead Crystal® Batteries.

Charger settings

Lead Crystal® Batteries are high-end products that work best with good quality battery chargers. Below settings for automated battery chargers are recommended to fully utilize the benefits of Lead Crystal® Batteries. 

• Cyclic charging: the battery is frequently charged and discharged like a daily routine. The battery is boosted to a higher voltage, followed by an equalization phase at lower voltage and lower current, automatically followed by the float phase when and if the battery is (close to) full.
• Standby charging: the battery is only discharged once per week (or less).
• Float charging: the battery is in a constant charged state and rarely discharged. The Float Phase will also set in on standby charging when the battery is full (fully automated).

Discharge characteristics

Battery Capacity Batteries under certain discharge conditions will release a certain amount of current. This amount of current released is called the capacity. The symbol used to identify the capacity is "C". The commonly used unit of measure is Amp Hours (Ah).

The battery capacity can be defined in two parts, namely rated capacity and actual capacity under different discharge conditions. The actual capacity of the battery under certain discharge conditions is calculated by the current (A) multiplied by the discharge time (h). The resulting unit is Ah.

Battery Discharge Rate

The battery discharge rate uses rated hours to determine the discharge time. This time is influenced by the amount of current drawn from the battery. If the discharge current increases, the discharge time will decrease and also affect the rated capacity.

Hour rated discharge:
C 10 = 10 hour rated capacity (Ah)
C120 = 120 hour rated capacity (Ah)

Rate of discharge:
1C = 1 multiplied by the 10 hour rated capacity used for the discharge current (A)
0.01C = 0.01 multiplied by the 10 hour rated capacity used for the discharge current (A)

Discharge duration
Generic curve of different discharge rates of a Lead Crystal® battery at 25°C. For discharge values of a specific battery model we revert to the constant current discharge tables in the datasheets.

Influence of Temperature on Capacity 

The discharge characteristics and temperature of batteries are closely related. When the temperature is low, the discharge capacity of the battery will be reduced. For example, when the temperature is dropped from 25°C to 0°C, the capacity of the battery will drop to about 95% of its rated capacity.

As the ambient temperature rises, the battery capacity will increase within a certain range, for example, the battery capacity will rise to about 105% of the rated capacity when the temperature rises from 25°C to 40°C, however if the temperature continues to rise, the capacity increase will slow down, and ultimately not increase further.

Influence of temperature on capacityDischarge Voltage 

The termination voltage refers to the battery voltage dropping during discharge to the minimum working voltage required for operation. The termination voltage and the discharge current are closely related. Generally during high current discharge the termination voltage of the battery should be set lower.

During long term operation at small discharge currents, the battery will form a thin layer of sulphation on the plates, increasing their size. This could cause deformation of the active material and cause it to fall off the plates. To prevent this and also to protect the battery during small current operations, the termination voltage should be set higher.

Over discharging below the termination voltage should be avoided since the over discharging could only gain a small amount of additional capacity, but drastically reduce the battery’s service life.

Termination voltage

Termination voltage of Lead Crystal® batteries when discharged at different current.

Self-Discharge

The self-discharge characteristics of a battery changes with environmental temperatures, the higher the temperature the higher the self-discharge, so the batteries should not be stored in an environment that is subjected to extremely high temperature conditions for long durations of time. Due to the use of our unique crystal composite electrolyte and alloy grid plate technology, the self-discharge consumption of Lead Crystal Batteries is efficiently reduced. At a constant 25°C environmental temperature Lead Crystal Batteries can be kept on a shelf for up to two years without constant top up charging. The batteries will maintain over 80% of their rated capacity after 12 months.

Self-discharge